December 5, 2020

Chemical Agreement

Article X provides for the support and protection of a contracting state when it is attacked or threatened with attack by chemical weapons The 2013 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the organization for “defining the use of chemical weapons as a taboo of international law” under the Chemical Weapons Convention, said the chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Thorbjarn Jagland. [12] [13] The Convention encourages trade between States parties and urges them not to maintain restrictions on each other that would impede trade in chemical items that should be used for peaceful purposes. The agreement limits trade with non-state parties and prohibits the transfer of chemicals in accordance with Schedules 1 and 2. In order to ensure that schedule 3 transmissions to non-state parties are not used for purposes prohibited by the convention, the CBI requires exporting contracting states to receive a final use certificate issued by importing states. Article IV sets out the requirements for States Parties to destroy their chemical weapons A portion may claim a “single small facility” producing up to 1 tonne of Schedule 1 chemicals per year for research, medicine, pharmacy or protection purposes, and another facility may produce 10 kg per year for protection testing purposes. An unlimited number of other establishments may produce Schedule 1 chemicals for research, medicine or pharmacy purposes, which are subject to a total annual cap of 10 kg, but any facility producing more than 100 grams must be declared. [14] [18] Chemical arms control is an attempt to limit the use or possession of chemical weapons through arms control agreements. These agreements are often motivated by the common belief that “these weapons… [1] and by a general agreement that chemical weapons “do not correspond to the feelings and principles of civilized war.” [2] By November 2018, 96.62 per cent of the world`s reported chemical weapons stockpiles had been destroyed. [8] The Convention contains provisions relating to the systematic assessment of chemical production facilities as well as investigations into allegations of the use and manufacture of chemical weapons on the basis of the findings of other states. On March 13, 2018, the OPCW announced the destruction of Iraq`s chemical weapons.

During the Cold War, chemical weapons were greatly developed, manufactured and stored. In the 1970s and 1980s, an estimated 25 countries developed chemical weapons capabilities. But since the end of World War II, chemical weapons have only been used in a small number of cases, especially in Iraq in the 1980s against the Islamic Republic of Iran. The treaty also addresses carbon compounds called “discreet organic chemicals” in the treaty, most of which have moderate direct toxicity or can easily be converted into toxic compounds, which are sufficient to be used as a chemical weapon. [19] These are all carbon compounds except long chain polymers, oxides, sulphides and metal carbonates, such as organophosphates. The OPCW must be informed of any facility producing (or producing) more than 200 tonnes per year or 30 tonnes if the chemical contains phosphorus, sulphur or fluoride, and be able to test them, unless the facility produces only explosives or hydrocarbons. The OPCW technical secretariat is headquartered in The Hague, the Netherlands. Currently, 189 nations, representing about 98% of the world`s population, have joined the CWC. The OPCW`s mission is to implement the provisions of the CAC and ensure a credible and transparent regime for verifying the destruction of chemical weapons; prevent their retaliation in a Member State; To provide protection and assistance against chemical weapons; Promote international cooperation on the peaceful use of chemistry; and to gain universal membership in the OPCW. Cooperation between the United Nations and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons is governed by the agreement on relations between the two organizations, adopted by the General Assembly in September 2001.